parties in post-war Germany, and for the most part did not co-ordinate their activities. They objected to the Old Testament because of its Jewish origins and demanded that converted Jews be barred from their church. Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe. In February 1941, the German Afrika Korps arrived in Libya to aid the Italians in the North African Campaign. When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The total number of Jews murdered is estimated.5 to six million, including over a million children. First-year students also had to serve six months in a labour camp for the Reich Labour Service ; an additional ten weeks service were required of second-year students.